"Carbon reduction projects"

The Kyoto Protocol

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement designed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), aimed at combating global warming.
  • The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

Carbon Offset

  • A carbon credits is a financial instrument representing at a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Carbon credits are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent reductions (CO2e). One carbon credit represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases.


  • There are two markets for carbon offsets. The compliance market (CER), companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. The voluntary market (VER), individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  • The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.
  • Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
  • A CDM project must provide emission reductions that are additional to what would otherwise have occurred.


  • Public funding for CDM project activities must not result in the diversion of official development assistance.
  • The CDM allows net global greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced at a much lower global cost by financing emissions reduction projects in developing countries where costs are lower than in industrialized countries.
  • The CDM is supervised by the CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) and is under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties (COP/MOP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

CDM Baseline

  • The amount of emission reduction, obviously, depends on the emissions that would have occurred without the project minus the emissions of the project.
  • The construction of such a hypothetical scenario is known as the baseline of the project.
  • The baseline may be estimated through reference to emissions from similar activities and technologies in the same country or other countries, or to actual emissions prior to project implementation.

CDM Methodologies

  • Any proposed CDM project has to use an approved baseline and monitoring methodology to be validated, approved and registered.
  • Baseline Methodology will set steps to determine the baseline within certain applicability conditions


  • Monitoring methodology will set specific steps to determine monitoring parameters, quality assurance, equipment to be used, in order to obtain datas to calculate the emission reductions.
  • Those approved methodologies are all coded.

Designated National Authorities (DNA)

  • Mr. A.Enkhbat, Director and Mr. D.Erdenebulgan, Secretary. Ministry for Nature and Environment of Mongolia. Sustainable Development and Strategic Planning Department. Baga Toiruu-44. Government building #3. Ulaanbaatar-11. Mongolia.
  • At a national level, each country involved in the CDM has a Designated National Authority (DNA) responsible for granting approval to local projects which have fulfilled national criteria for sustainable development.

Types of Carbon Offset Project

  • Solar and wind power
  • Landfill methane gas
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Efficient Lighting
  • Methane from Biomass
  • Forestation
  • Industrial Methane
  • and much more

What we do...

  • We analyze carbon reduction projects, their validation process and registration standard.
  • We screen local partners to verify that they promote sustainable development and biodiversity, and have sufficient experience in the local communities.
  • We contact the Designated National Authorities (DNA) and have them sign a letter of approuval (LOA)
  • We produce the project description (PIN) and the detailed technical report (PDD) in co-operation with a Belgian consulting company.


  • We introduce the PDD to Designated Operating Entities (DOE) and have the project approved by them.
  • We co-finance projects.

"We do not inherit the earth from our parents, we borrow it from our children" de Saint-Exupéry

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